Monday, 3 September 2012

Note Making through Reading Comprehension - Guidelines and Solved Example



WHY NOTE-MAKING?
           

Today, extensive reading is the buzz word in every field of study or research. While reading, we are often bombarded with information of a vast ambit. It often becomes difficult to recall all the key points of a passage / article we may have read.

                       
Note making is a means to capture the key ideas of a given passage in an easily readable, logically structured format. The style is fairly casual though within the prescribed CBSE framework and we are even allowed to use abbreviations.

The key to abbreviations at the end of the task ensures that any other reader may also be able to interpret the gist of the passage. Thus, note making can be a wonderful tool to take notes in class, share notes with each other and even revise for an exam.


TECHNIQUE:
How to make notes
  • Read the passage carefully.
  • Heading
    What is the main idea of the passage? Frame a heading based on the central idea and write it in the middle of the page. Keep the heading short, crisp and interesting (no more than  3-4 words)
  • Subheadings
    How has the main idea been presented and developed? Are there two or three subordinate/associated ideas? You can frame subheadings based on these.
  • Points
    What details or points of the subtitles do you wish to keep in these notes? Indent, i.e., suitably space and number.
All subheadings should be written at a uniform distance from the margin.
  • Indenting
    All points should also maintain the same distance away from the sub heading.
Note: Do not write full sentences. And use abbreviations wherever necessary.
Help with abbreviations
  1. Use standard abbreviations and symbols as far as possible:
    1. Capitalized first letters of words
      e.g. U.P.,U.S.A.,U.K.,U.S.S.R.,etc.
    2. Common abbreviations
      Sc. (for science), Mr., Mrs., Dr., Govt., etc
    3. Common symbols         e.g., : \, , +ve, -ve, ® (leading to), ↑ (rising), ↓ (falling), =, etc.
    4. Measurements and Figures
      e.g., : 100′, 100”, 100 kg, 1000 mm, 100ml, etc. 

  1. Making your own abbreviations:
 .        Keep the main sounds of the word. For example, edn. (education), progm. (programme)
    1. Retain the suffix so that later when you are going over the notes you may recall the full form of the word —e.g., ed’nal (educational), prog’ve (progressive).
      2. Caution
 .        Do not get over-enthusiastic about abbreviations. You should not abbreviate every word. One abbreviation in point is enough. Ideally, you wouldn’t require more than 4 to 5 for a passage.
    1. As a general rule, the heading should not be abbreviated. You may use abbreviations in subheadings.

Notice that indenting, i.e., shifting from the margin has been used to clearly indicate subheadings, points and sub points. Such use of indenting gives your notes a visual character. At a glance you can see the main idea and its aspects.

These are few points which are to be kept in mind while making notes.
• Indent the notes properly
• Use of abbreviations
• Heading / Title (should be max 3 – 4 words)
• Sub heading (should be 3-4 only)
• Key at the end of the note (It should be enclosed with a box)
• Don’t include all the information present in an article or paragraph. Pick key points.
• There should be no grammatically correct, complete sentences in the notes. Pick phrases with just enough information to later expand into a sentence when writing the summary.
• Mention the word count at the bottom right of the summary.

When writing a summary, ensure that you do not exceed + / - 80 words. Give a heading. Keep sentences short and in the interest of brevity, club points together when possible. The following example will clarify this concept for you.


Solved Example 1: Read the passage below. Make notes on the passage and draft a summary thereafter.

The small village of Somnathpur contains an extraordinary temple, built around 1268 A.D. by the Hoyasalas of Karnataka – one of the most prolific temple builders. Belur and Helebid are among their better-known works. While these suffered during the invasion of the 14th century, the Somnathpur temple stands more or less intact in near-original condition. The small temple captivates with the beauty and vitality of its detailed sculpture, covering almost every inch of the walls, pillars and even ceilings. It has three shikaras and stands on a star-shaped raised platform with 24 edges. The outer walls have a profusion of detailed carvings: the entire surface run over by carved plaques of stone. There were vertical panels covered by exquisite figures of God and Goddesses, with many incarnations being depicted. There were nymphs too, some carrying an ear of maize, a symbol of plenty and prosperity. The elaborate ornamentation, very characteristic of Hoyasala sculptures was a remarkable feature. On closer look – and it is worth it – the series of friezes on the outer walls revealed intricately carved caparisoned elephants, charging horsemen, stylized flowers, warriors, musicians, crocodiles and swans.

The temple was actually commissioned by Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath (he named the village after himself), the minister of the Hoyasala king, Narasimha the Third. The temple was built to house three versions of Krishna – Venugopala, Janardana and Prasanna Keshava, though only two remain in their original form. In the darkness of the sanctum sanctorum, I tried to discern the different images. The temple’s sculptural perfection is amazing and includes the doors of the temple and the three elegantly carved towers.

SOMNATH TEMPLE
(1) Locn & Origin
            (1.1) small village of Somnathpur.
            (1.2)  commissioned - Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath –minister of Hoyasala king, Narasimha, III

(2) Original condition
            (2.1) Three corridors ending in three shrines with three versions of Krishna – Venugopala, Janardana and Prasanna 
            Keshava.
            (2.2) Kalyana Mandapa – in the inner centre of temple.

(3) Structural Details & Sculptural Perfection
            (3.1) Structure
                        (3.1.1) has 3 Shikaras.
                        (3.1.2) stars on a star-shaped-raised platform with 24 edges.
                        (3.1.3) vertical panels: exquisite. Figures of gods & goddesses - many reincn depicted.
                        (3.1.4) nymphs – some with an ear of maize (symbol of plenty & prosperity).

            (3.2) Sculptural perfectn
                        (3.2.1) every inch of walls – carved caparisoned elephants, charge-ng horsemen, stylized  

                        flowers., warriors, musicians, crocodiles & swans.





SOMNATH TEMPLE

Somnath Temple is located in the small village of Somnathpur and was commissioned by Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath, the minister of Hoyasala king, Narasimha the third. Three corridors end in three shrines with three versions of Krishna – Venugopala, Janardana and Prasanna Keshava. A Kalyana Mandapa resides in the inner centre of temple. It has three shikharas intricate carvings depicting plenty and prosperity through shikhars, Gods and Goddesses, caparisoned elephants, charging horsemen, flowers, warriors, musicians and other majestic animals.                                       (Word count – 78 words)
__________________

Solved Example 2

It’s 10p.m. and the research paper is due the next morning. Sam types frantically. Two weeks ago, it seemed that there was plenty of time to get the paper done. Last week, the final of a soccer match on TV made it hard to study. Now it’s crunch time. Looking at the clock, Sam wonders, “Why do I keep doing this to myself? Why haven’t I learned not to put things off until the last minute?”

The word procrastination comes from two Latin terms meaning to put forward until tomorrow. Standard dictionary definitions all include the idea of postponement or delay. Steel, a psychologist who has reviewed hundreds of studies on the subject, states that to procrastinate is “to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse-off for the delay”.

Another expert, Dr. Joseph R. Ferrari (2005), distinguishes between people who tend to put things off and “chronic” or “real” procrastinators for whom this is their life and who might even need therapy. Ferrari categorizes procrastinators into three types: (a) stimulation types that get a thrill from beating a deadline, (b) avoiders put off doing things that might make others think badly of them, and (c) decisional procrastinators postpone making a decision until they have enough information to avoid making a wrong choice.

Chronic procrastinators tend to have low self-esteem and focus on the past more than the future. The Discounted Expectancy Theory illustrates with a student like Sam who puts off writing a paper. When the deadline is far off, the rewards for socializing now are greater than those for finishing a task not due until later. As the deadline looms, the rewards or consequences for finishing the paper become more important.

Tice and Baumeister (1997) found that procrastinators on the average got lower grades and had higher levels of stress and illness. Chu and Choi (2005) however, say that not all procrastinators are lazy and undisciplined. “Passive procrastinators” are more stressed, less efficient. “Active procrastinators prefer to work under pressure” and “if something unexpectedly comes up, they will knowingly switch gears and engage in new tasks they perceive as more urgent.”                                                          (365 words)

Procrastination

1. Introtn of proctn
            1.1 Origin – Latin
            1.2 Meaning – Put fwd till tomorrow – Idea of postponement or delay
            1.3 Steel (psychologist) – voluntary delay – despite expecting to be worse-off
2. Categortn
            2.1 Dr. Joseph R. Ferrari
                        2.1.1 Simtn types – thrill from beating a deadline
                        2.1.2 Avoiders – avoid things that make others think badly of them
                        2.1.3 Decisional – postpone making a decsn (until enough information)
                        2.1.4 Real procs – way of life (might need therapy)
                        2.1.5 Chronic procs
                                    2.1.5.1 Low self esteem
                                    2.1.5.2 Focus on past
            2.2 Tice and Baumeister
                        2.2.1 Procs got lower grades
                        2.2.2 Higher levels of stress and illness
            2.3 Chu and Choi
                        2.3.1 Passive procs – stressed, less efficient
                        2.3.2 Active procs – prefer to work under pressure, knowingly engage in new tasks (more   
                        urgent)

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
Introtn
Introduction
Fwd
Forward
Categortn
Categorization
Simtn
Simulation
Decsn
Decision
Procs
Procrastinators
Proctn
Procrastination


Procrastination

Latin-origin procrastination is the idea of postponement. A psychologist, Steel, says it is voluntary delay. Dr. Joseph R. Ferrari Categorizes Procrastinators into five types. ‘Simulation types feel thrilled’, ‘Avoiders’ fear criticism, ‘Decisionals’ wait for information, ‘Reals’ find it natural and might need therapy while ‘Chronic’ ones have low self esteem and focus on past. Tice and Baumeister say procrastinators get low grades and have high stress and illness. Chu and Choi clarify that passive procrastinators are stressed and less efficient while active procrastinators prioritize.                                                         (Word count – 84)
            


 NOTE - Even though in the above passage, we've used upto 2.1.5.1, for CBSE Boards, do not make so many sub points. Pick the most important bits from the passage given, make about 3 or 4 major sub topics and three or four detail points for each sub topic.


NOW TRY THESE ON YOUR OWN

Residents of the Bhirung Raut Ki Gali, where Ustad Bishmillah Khan was born on March 21, 1916, were in
shock. His cousin, 94-year -old Mohd Idrish Khan had tears in his eyes. Shubhan Khan, the care-taker of Bismillah’s land, recalled: “Whenever in Dumaraon, he would give rupees two to the boys and rupees five to the girls of the locality”.

He was very keen to play shehnai again in the local Bihariji’s Temple where he had started playing shehnai with his father, Bachai Khan, at the age of six. His original name was Quamaruddin and became Bishmillah only after he became famous as a shehnai player in Varanasi. His father Bachai Khan was the official shehnai player of Keshav Prasad Singh,the Maharaja of the erstwhile Dumaraon estate, Bismillah used to accompany him.

For Bishmillah Khan, the connection to music began at a very early age. Byhis teens, he had already become a master of the shehnai. On the day India gained freedom, Bismillah Khan, then a sprightly 31 year-old, had the rare honour of playing from Red Fort. But Bishmillah Khan won’t just be remembered for elevating the shehnai from an instrument heard only in weddings and naubatkhanas to one that was appreciated in concert halls across the world. His life was a testimony to the plurality that is India.

A practicing Muslim, he would take a daily dip in the Ganga in his younger days after a bout of kusti in Benia Baga Akhada. Every morning, Bishmillah Khan would do riyaaz at the Balaji temple on the banks of the river. Even during his final hours in a Varanasi hospital, music didn’t desert Bishmillah Khan. A few hours before he passed away early on Monday, the shehnai wizard hummed a thumri to show that he was feeling better. This was typical of a man for whom life revolved around music.

Throughout his life he abided by the principle that all religions are one. What marked Bishmillah Khan was his simplicity and disregard for the riches that come with musical fame. Till the very end, he used a cycle rickshaw to travel around Varanasi. But the pressure of providing for some 60 family members took its toll during his later years.

2.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations where necessary.

2.2 Make a summary of the above passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.



Read the passages carefully and answer the questions that follow to check your reading comprehension. Then, make notes using appropriate headings and abbreviations:

A)
1.  Your relationship with your grandparent may also be free of some of the tensions that youths sometimes experience with their parents. Why might this be so? For one thing, grandparents often enjoy a special bond with their grandchildren. The Bible says: "Old men are proud of their grandchildren."

2.  Remember, too, that it is your parents—not your grandparents—who must bear the heavy responsibility of raising you "in the discipline and mental-agility." Because their role is less demanding, your grandparents may be less prone than your parents to be critical of you. Also, one's grandparents are usually not encumbered by the responsibilities and pressures of the daily care of a family. Because they may be relatively free of such stresses, it may be easier for them to respond to your needs or to pay attention to you. Seventeen-year-old Tom recalls the attention he got from his grandparents. They would send him "little gifts for getting good report cards"; they even paid for his piano lessons.

3.  Of course, not all grandparents are able to provide such gifts, but they may still demonstrate their interest in you, perhaps by offering you praise and encouragement or by giving you a hearing ear from time to time. This can forge deep bonds of friendship between you. Damaris says regarding her grandmother: "She makes me feel at ease, and I can go to her and talk to her at any time because she is always willing to listen—even if I am not making sense at the time." A youth named J├┤natas similarly enjoys freeness of speech and the opportunity to talk about serious subjects with his grandparents.

4.  While grandparents can offer you their wisdom and love, they can also benefit from your youthful energy and companionship. How so? Well, there are likely a number of ways in which you can be of help and support to your grandparents. Oftentimes, their physical strength is fading. Or they may be battling ill health. No doubt they would be encouraged if you helped them with shopping and household chores. No doubt about it, drawing close to your grandparents can enrich your life—as well as theirs!

A. 1.  On the basis of your reading the passage complete the following sentences:

(8  marks)


(a)    Why don’t the youth sometime experience good relations with their parents?         (1)
(b)    Who bear the responsibility of making the children disciplined ?                                          (1)
(c)    Why do the grandparents pay more attention to their grandchildren?                       (1)
(d)   What deepens the bond of friendship between grandparents and grandchildren?    (1)
(e)    What are the problems that old grandparents may suffer from ?                              (2)
(i)                 _____________________________________________________ .
(ii)               _____________________________________________________ .
(f)     The youth get (i) ______________ and (ii)  ____________  from their grandparents and they can benefit them by their (iii) __________ and (iv) ________________ .                                                           (2)

A. 2.  Find words in the passage which mean:                                                                                   (4 marks)

a).  Burdened          (2nd paragraph)          _________
b).  Comparatively (2nd paragraph)            _________
c).  Eager                (3rd paragraph)            _________
d).  Improve            (4th paragraph)           _________

A. 3. Make notes on the passage given above with a title, points, sub-points and then write a summary based on the notes.

sAbout twice every century, one of the massive stars in our galaxy blows itself apart in a supernova explosion that sends massive quantities of radiation and matter into space and generates shock waves that sweep through the arms of the galaxy. The shock waves heat the interstellar gas, evaporate small clouds, and compress larger ones to the point at which they collapse under their own gravity to form new stars. The general picture that has been developed for the supernova explosion and its aftermath goes something like this. Throughout its evolution, a star is much like a leaky balloon. It keeps its equilibrium figure through a balance of internal pressure against the tendency to collapse under its own weight. The pressure is generated by nuclear reactions in the core of the star which must continually supply energy to balance the energy that leaks out in the form of radiation. Eventually the nuclear fuel is exhausted, and the pressure drops in the core. With nothing to hold it up, the matter in the center of the star collapses inward, creating higher and higher densities and temperatures, until the nuclei and electrons are fused into a super-dense lump of matter known as a neutron star.

As the overlying layers rain down on the surface of the neutron star, the temperature rises, until with a blinding flash of radiation, the collapse is reversed. A thermonuclear shock wave runs through the now expanding stellar envelope, fusing lighter elements into heavier ones and producing a brilliant visual outburst that can be as intense as the light of 10 billion suns. The shell of matter thrown off by the explosion plows through the surrounding gas, producing an expanding bubble of hot gas, with gas temperatures in the millions of degrees. This gas will emit most of its energy at X-ray wavelengths, so it is not surprising that X-ray observatories have provided some of the most useful insights into the nature of the supernova phenomenon. More than twenty supernova remnants have now been detected in X-ray studies.

Recent discoveries of meteorites with anomalous concentrations of certain isotopes indicate that a supernova might have precipitated the birth of our solar system more than four and a half billion years ago. Although the cloud that collapsed to form the Sun and the planets was composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, it also contained carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, elements essential for life as we know it. Elements heavier than helium are manufactured deep in the interior of stars and would, for the most part, remain there if it were not for the cataclysmic supernova explosions that blow giant stars apart. Additionally, supernovas produce clouds of high-energy particles called cosmic rays. These high-energy particles continually bombard the Earth and are responsible for many of the genetic mutations that are the driving force of the evolution of species.

B.1. Which of the following titles best describes the content of the passage?
(a) The Origins and Effects of Supernovas
(b) The Life and Death of Stars
(c) The Origins and Evolution of Life on Earth
(d) The Aftermath of a Supernova
(e) Violent Change in the Universe

B.2. According to the passage, we can expect a supernova to occur in our galaxy
(a) about twice each year
(b) hundreds of times each century
(c) about once every fifty years
(d) about once every other century
(e) about once every four to five billion years

B.3. According to the passage all of the following are true of supernovas EXCEPT that they
(a) are extremely bright
(b) are an explosion of some sort
(c) emit large quantities of X-rays
(d) result in the destruction of a neutron star
(e) are caused by the collision of large galaxies

B.4. The author employs which of the following to develop the first paragraph?
(a) Analogy
(b) Deduction
(c) Generalization
(d) Example
(e) Refutation

B.5. It can be inferred from the passage that the meteorites mentioned by the author at line 39
(a) contain dangerous concentrations of radioactive materials
(b) give off large quantities of X-rays
(c) include material not created in the normal development of our solar system
(d) are larger than the meteors normally found in a solar system like ours
(e) contain pieces of a supernova that occurred several billion years ago

B.6. The author implies that
(a) it is sometimes easier to detect supernovas by observation of the X-ray spectrum than by observation of visible wavelengths of light
(b) life on Earth is endangered by its constant exposure to radiation forces that are released by a supernova
(c) recently discovered meteorites indicate that the Earth and other planets of our solar system survived the explosion of a supernova several billion years ago
(d) lighter elements are formed from heavier elements during a supernova as the heavier elements are torn apart
(e) the core of a neutron star is composed largely of heavier elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen

B.7. According to the passage what is the first event in the sequence that leads to the occurrence of a supernova?
(a) An ordinary star begins to emit tremendous quantities of X-rays.
(b) A neutron star is enveloped by a superheated cloud of gas.
(c) An imbalance between light and heavy elements causes an ordinary star to collapse.
(d) A cloud of interstellar gas rich in carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, collapses to form a neutron star.
(e) An ordinary star exhausts its supply of nuclear fuel and begins to collapse.

B.8. According to the passage a neutron star is
(a) a gaseous cloud containing heavy elements
(b) an intermediate stage between an ordinary star and a supernova
(c) the residue that is left by a supernova
(d) the core of an ordinary star that houses the thermonuclear reactions
(e) one of billions of meteors that are scattered across the galaxy by a supernova

B.9. The author is primarily concerned with
(a) speculating about the origins of our solar system
(b) presenting evidence proving the existence of supernovas
(c) discussing the nuclear reaction that occurs in the core of a star
(d) describing the sequence of scientific events
(e) disproving a theory about the causes of supernovas

B.10. Make notes on the passage given above with a title, points, sub-points and then write a summary based on the notes.

C) While a high percentage of westerners are spending, hours in the sun to acquire a tan, a large number of people in the East are slapping on creams and lotions hoping to become a fair and look young. But at what cost?

On a recent trip to a small supermarket in my neighbourhood, I was astonished to note that two of the largest chains in the store were dedicated to skin whitening creams. Later, a nearby pharmacy, I noticed the same trend; shelves heaving with whitening creams. And the trend isn't limited to supermarket shelf space. Turn on the television at any given time and you will see advertisements dedicated to various skin whitening products.
If you think this obsession with light, spot and blemish-free skin is restricted to a vain few, think again. The vast selection of pills, lotions and creams is testament to an industry that is flourishing. Women in Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan even know the secret of pale beauty. Now using a skin whitening cream has become the 'in thing' in the Middle East too.

Pale, spot -free skin is being aggressively marketed across the region as synonymous with beauty and health. The result: women are willing to go to any extreme to change their complexion little realizing that it could sometimes be bordering on the dangerous

The craze for skin whitening has a long history , dating back to the days of yore in Asia, where the  saying' one white, covers  up three ugliness ' was passed from one generation to the next .

A White face was considered aristocratic because only the rich could afford to stay out of the blazing sun and remain pale and 'spotless'. Working outdoors - like peasants in the field – were sun -burnt and brown

Another possible theory is that the cultural dominance of Europeans and Americans in recent times led to the belief that white skin equals power,  money special privilege and needless to say beauty.

'It is quite funny because while women in the Far East are risking their health by using cheap, unreliable whitening agents to get a fairer complexion , women in the West risk their health  by baking in the sun to get a tan, says do Dr. Seattle ,Olay's  principal scientist for skin care research and development
'In Japan ,geishas were ( and still are) known for the painted white skin which represents beauty , grace and high social status' says Dr. Geo ,international beauty expert for Kose, a leading Japanese cosmetics brand in whitening products. However, whitening products are not used on a wide scale in Japan today.

C.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the questions given below (8 marks)
1.The three things that amazed  the author are ……………………
2. The three sentences that shows you people are crazy about ' spotless' skin….
3. The common belief in Asia for skin whitening is………………….
4. Rich people were fairer because………..

C.2 Find words in the passage which mean the following (2 marks)
1. Something that is used at present -
2. Proof –
3. Advantage –
4. To have control over –

C.3. Make notes on the passage given above with a title, points, sub-points and then write a summary based on the notes.
______________

The recent news that local hospitals have had to reroute seriously ill patients because the community's critical-care beds are full is worrisome. Earlier this week, four of the six local hospitals ran out of space for the critically ill and had to turn people away.

Federal law requires hospitals to treat anyone who walks in. As a result of having to treat large numbers of uninsured patients, the emergency rooms often become an economic drain on their hospitals. Doctors now want to set up their own free-standing ambulatory surgical facilities and diagnostic centres. Critics contend this would leave hospitals with less revenue and the same number of indigents to treat.  

A bill was recently introduced to phase out the need for a "certificate of public need" for non-hospital-based facilities, provided those facilities met stringent regulations and requirements. This would have made it easier to set up alternative facilities to help indigent patients. The finance committee balked at the hefty price and killed the bill, another casualty of a failed legislative session. 

Unfortunately, the problem of access to medical care for those of limited means is not going to go away anytime soon and, despite the well-intended regulations, too-full hospitals compromise everyone's welfare. Healthy competition with small neighbourhood surgical and diagnostic centres may be what is necessary to help dampen rising medical costs. But under no circumstances should the hospitals be forced to care for everybody without health insurance while competitors operate free of the burden of caring for those unable to pay.

D1) Which of the following is a conclusion supported by the passage?
  1. If doctors want to run their own facilities, they should be required to take in at least some of the indigents.
  2. The government should provide health insurance for those unable to buy their own.
  3. Voters should tell the finance committee members that they will not be re-elected if they do not pass some new legislation.
  4. Emergency rooms that turn patients away due to overcrowding are derelict in their duty.
  5. The fundamental problem facing hospitals now is that health care costs have risen dramatically in recent years.
D2) Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?
  1. neutral
  2. positive
  3. persuasive
  4. angry
  5. reverential
D3) Which of the following is cited as a factor which has contributed to the overburdening of hospitals?
  1. Failure to pass legislation which would have mitigated the problem
  2. Limited access to medical care for the poor
  3. Federal law
  1. I only
  2. II only
  3. III only
  4. I and II
  5. I, II, and III
D4) The author cites the failed legislation in order to show that
  1. the legislature will never resolve this issue.
  2. the finance committee does not care about the uninsured citizens.
  3. there will always be uninsured hospital patients.
  4. the legislature recently attempted to resolve this issue.
  5. the doctors successfully lobbied the finance committee.
D5) Make notes on the passage given above with a title, points, sub-points and then write a summary based on the notes.

   __________________________

E) Children are the hope and future of a nation, yet there are millions of deprived children in a country who have never known a normal childhood. They are forced to work for a living from an early age and are exploited by every adult round them including their own families. These neglected forgotten children lead a dismal, dark life full of horror and though they exist all around us, very few people really see them or care.

But those who  most often stop for a moment and look into the eyes of these innocent children unchanged forever, there is no going back for them and they know that they have to do something positive to change these tragic lives even if it is in a small way. CRY – Child Relief and You -- is an organization that was started by seven such individuals and it has been working from 1979 to change the lives of underprivileged children all over India.

CRY understood so much the dire need of help. At the same time it realized that there are many people were more than willing to extend a helping hand but did not know how to go about it . They tried links to bring child relief and the EU elements together 

And now seven hundred and fifteen child welfare organizations are being pounded by CRY and more than five black guy (children from rural and urban areas) can all have a better life in the future .To continue giving support to this, one of the organizations enable them to carry on their work in the fields of education and care and the income generation schemes at the grassroots level. CRY is able to generate funds through various means.

E.1. On the basis of your reading the passage answer the following questions as briefly as possible : (8 marks)
a. What are the children for a nation?
b. In a country there millions of children who…………..
c. Why do the children work at an early age…………
d. The deprived children are exploited by ……………..
e. Find a word from lines one to 5-15 which mean 'take advantage in a wrong way'
f. Who are the few people who care for neglected children
g. CRY was started by……………….
h. CRY tries to …………………….


E.2. Make notes on the above passage and then write a summary based on your notes.
__________________________


F) The veteran best-selling author and motivational speaker Dennis Waitley has been in the business of inspiring others for about 40 years. He is one of America's most respected authors and keynote lecturers and productivity consultant on high performance human achievement. With over 10 million audio programs sold in fourteen languages, Dennis is one of the most listened-to voices on personal and career success. He's the author of fifteen non-fiction books which includes several international bestsellers.

Dennis has studied and counselled winners in every field from Apollo astronauts to Superbowl champions, from sales achievers to government leaders and youth groups. During the eighties, he served as chairman of Psychology on the U.S. Olympic Committee Sports Medicine Council, responsible for performance enhancement of all U.S. athletes

Dennis says, "It has been a wonderful journey and I'm not trying to stop .I think that my children, grandchildren, great grandchildren keep me going, and I keep re- inventing myself ".

My daughter told me that they thought that they had to work a little hard to be successful, and interestingly both of them have become doctors in psychology. I hope I am learning and becoming a part of the future rather than rehashing information .Of course there are some basics truths that have to be rehashed again and again. I should not say ' rehashing ', we are explaining them in a language that is relevant to today's situation.
I travelled a great deal to China and India to see what the newest developing nations are going through to become successful. I think the challenge for me is to continue to plant shade trees under which I wouldn't sit. So people are asked why don't you retire, but I like to learn and teach. The more I teach, the more I learn, it really is what keeps me going.

I always wondered why some people are angry and sad all the time and why some people are happy. At first I thought that maybe they were born that way. Certainly personality plays a part in it. I was raised during the 'Depression' at the beginning of the Second World War and my grandmother was the dominant influence in my life. She and I planted a ' Victory Garden' and grew our own food. She told me that what was on the seed package, those pictures, would come up if we planted those seeds and then she told me the same thing would happen in my life if I cultivated it . She told me to model my life on worthy people. The hunger in me to be better and to be something led me to understand that the best way to do that would be to help other people.

Earl Nightingale was one of our early twentieth century motivational speakers and philosophers. He coined the term' the strangest secret '. It postulates that we become what we think about most of the time. He became my mentor and he guided me to a record my thoughts because that's what he did. He told me ' as you do all your work, don't believe that you are a world changer, know that you are just a seed planter and that you are not changing lives.


On the basis of your reading of the passage answer the questions given below (10 marks)

F.1. A motivational speaker is …………………………………………….

F.2. Examples from the first and second paragraphs to show that Dennis was a great success are:
a.
b.
c.

F.3. The journey that Dennis talks about is …………………………………………

F.4. Dennis does not agree to use the word ' rehash' because……………………,,,,

F.5. What did Dennis' "Victory Garden" consist of?

F.6. What kind of people did Dennis try to emulate?

F.7. Dennis was ' hungry ' for something. What was it?

F.8. Earl Nightingale's "The strangest secret," meant ………………………………

F.9. Find words from the passage which mean the following :(2 marks)
1. Advice –
2. Improvement –
3. Gloomy –
4. Role model –

F.10. Make notes on the passage above and then write a summary based on those notes

43 comments:

  1. Thank you........

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  3. Extremely helpful!! :)
    Could u provide the answer for the note-making question abt ustad Bismillah Khan??
    thank u in avdance XD

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    Replies
    1. advance* (oops...)

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    2. Haven't added them because I give it to my students for practice. Do give it a shot on your own. It's not too difficult, I promise :)

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  4. please give us more exercises

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    Replies
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  5. thanks it ws very use full fr me

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  16. @all: Thank you for your comments and appreciation.
    @last commenter: I'm not a dude buddy :)

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  17. Perfect info to prepare before exam
    thanks... :)

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  18. thnx...a lot it really helped .......

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  19. thankyou so much... ur description makes notemaking really crisp and easy to understand..thanks a lot for the examples and practice questions..they really helped me!

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  20. @Ana, anonymous and Saumya: Glad I could help and thank you for your comments :)

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  21. Really very helpful content!!!!!

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  22. Really vey helpful, Atleast to me ..!! Thanx :)

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    Replies
    1. @Rishabh and anonymous: glad I could help

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  23. very helpful thank you!!

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  28. Thnx man....It really helped me for my english exam.......

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